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1:Abraham Lincoln Tokybook
- The 16th President (Served from: March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865).
- PoliticalParty:Republican Party.
- Top-rated criteria: crisis leadership ability, administrative skills, vision, and ensuring equality for everyone.
Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, and died on April 15, 1865. He succeeded in leading the country through its darkest period: the American Civil War, constitutional, military, and ending slavery. He is most remembered for the Gettysburg Address, considered the greatest political statement ever made, of immense significance in the spiritual life of the USA.
He was a leader who helped the US economy overcome its crises and was famous for quotes like:
- “I destroy my enemies when I make them my friends.”
- “I don’t want to be a master nor a slave.”
- “It’s okay to move slowly, but never step back.”
Throughout his youth, he attended school for no more than a year. His neighbors said he would travel miles just to borrow a book to read.
At 21, he started his independent life. Standing tall at 1.90 meters, he was known for mimicking gestures and telling captivating stories, making it easy for him to attract and make friends. However, his potential was vast. After some time in various professions but facing failures, he discovered a passion for law. After teaching himself grammar and mathematics, he began studying law. In 1836, he passed the bar exam and started practicing. His life was a series of failures and successes. Each failure challenged him to succeed.
20 years into his law profession, he became the most successful and renowned lawyer in Illinois. The unique strengths that led to his success included professional prowess and an absolute sense of fairness and honesty in professional dealings.
His first run for the Illinois State Legislature failed, but he persevered and subsequently was elected for four consecutive terms from 1834-1840. Serving in the US Congress from 1847-1849, representing Illinois, he advocated for the abolition of slavery. Despite losing the Senate race against Stephen A. Douglas in 1858, he continued to fight and later was chosen as the presidential candidate for the Republican Party in 1860, winning the election. His anti-slavery stance led several Southern states to secede from the Union. He had to deal with national disintegration and the looming civil war.
With persistent nature, he simultaneously preserved the nation’s unity, resolved the civil war, and freed the slaves. He was re-elected as President in 1964. The following year, the 13th Amendment, abolishing slavery in every state, was ratified by the House.
On April 15, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated at Ford’s Theatre. His death left a legacy remembered for his honesty, eloquence, spirit of racial equality, and achievements in preventing national disintegration. On May 30, 1922, his memorial was erected in Washington D.C.
*First President (Served from: April 30, 1789 – March 4, 1797).
* Political Party: Independent.
* Highest ranked criteria: Economic management skills, leadership morality, and accomplishments during his tenure.
George Washington was born on February 22, 1732, and passed away on December 14, 1799. As the first president of the United States, Washington was the “founding father and patriarch of the nation”. He was also a skilled leader in the American Revolutionary War against Britain. Throughout his two terms, Washington established the Cabinet system (although his Cabinet members had opposing views) which offices still adhere to today.
Some of George Washington’s most famous historical quotes are:
- “Once the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we can be led, like sheep to the slaughter.”
- “I hope I shall always possess firmness and virtue enough to maintain what I consider the most enviable of all titles, the character of an honest man.”
- “It is better to be alone than in bad company.”
George Washington was born in the peaceful village of Virginia, in a well-to-do family with agricultural traditions. At 16, he began working in land surveying, and due to his talent and intellect, became an expert in the field a year later. By age 20, he switched careers to join the colonial militia and courageously participated in the war against French colonists and indigenous people. After the war, he returned home and took over a plantation left behind by his elder brother.
The first turning point marking the maturity of this future president was his marriage to a woman in 1759. After the wedding, due to his capabilities, he was elected to the Virginia legislature where he was born and gradually advanced in his career. He clearly opposed the British taxing America and became the head of his state, promoting and supporting the unification of American colonies.
By 1775, he was appointed as the commander-in-chief of the colonies. That same year, he established a colonial military force, built a strong army, and initiated major campaigns. Notably, he achieved victory at Saratoga against the French and successfully negotiated an alliance between French and American forces. From this point on, George Washington’s life took significant strides towards becoming the president of the United States.
In 1787, he was officially appointed as the president of the Constitutional Convention and brought great success to the United States by getting the Constitution ratified by all states.
With his immense contributions showing leadership talent, strategic vision, and the ability to change the fate of the entire country, in 1789 George Washington was officially elected as the first president of the United States of America (USA). He served as president from 1789 to 1797 (two presidential terms) and contributed to building the prosperous foundation for America as we know it today.
3:Franklin D. Roosevelt
*The 32nd President (served from March 4, 1933, to April 12, 1945).
*Political Party: Democratic Party.
*Highest rated criteria: Persuading the public and international relations.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, and died on April 12, 1945. He is the only president to have served more than two terms, passing away at the start of his fourth term. Throughout his three terms, he is best known for establishing new economic agreements to combat the effects of the global Great Depression and leading the country through World War II. He also forged a durable alliance that reshaped the political landscape of the United States for decades.
Memorable quotes from Franklin Delano Roosevelt:
- “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”
- “Nine-tenths of wisdom is being wise in time.”
- “Physical strength can never permanently withstand the impact of spiritual force.”
Roosevelt was born in the peaceful town of Hyde Park, nestled in the Hudson River Valley in New York State. Both of his parents, James Roosevelt and Sara Ann Delano, came from long-established wealthy families. The name Roosevelt originates from Dutch and means “rose field.” Franklin was the only child and was doted on and pampered by his family.
In his youth, Franklin did not attend local primary schools like other children of his age but was educated at home. They hired renowned tutors to teach the young aristocrat at home. Horse riding, shooting, rowing, playing polo, and tennis became his personal hobbies and specialties. The Roosevelts frequently traveled throughout Europe and often took Franklin with them. With an exceptional memory and an eagerness to learn, he quickly mastered German and French, which greatly benefited his later presidential career. These luxurious trips for the elite also exposed him to various cultures, enriching his knowledge in fields from arts to socio-economics.
In 1896, at 14, Franklin began his education at Groton School, a prestigious institution in Massachusetts, the education capital of the U.S. Here, he was instilled with the social responsibilities of an American citizen. He was deeply influenced by Headmaster Endicott Peabody, who imparted the spirit that “it’s a Christian’s duty to help those less fortunate.” Peabody also encouraged Franklin to actively participate in community activities.
In 1900, Franklin Roosevelt attended Harvard University, like many other U.S. Presidents. However, he wasn’t an outstanding student and wasn’t particularly bookish. He completed his bachelor’s degree in just three years and also served as an editor for the Harvard Crimson newspaper. During this time, his fifth cousin, Theodore Roosevelt, was elected President. With his decisive leadership style and dedication to U.S. social reforms, he became a role model for Franklin.
Franklin Roosevelt’s path to the presidency initially benefitted from the endorsement of his predecessor, Theodore Roosevelt. However, Franklin Roosevelt achieved something unique in U.S. history, being elected president four times. Analysts believe this was possible due to his broad social understanding from a young age and his exceptional leadership demonstrated during his tenure in the U.S. Navy Department. He was also a proud and resilient leader. In 1921, he was diagnosed with polio, which weakened him and left him unable to walk. But he trained rigorously with braces and a cane. Despite the pain, he always stood tall in front of his fellow Americans, never letting them see his wheelchair.
With his foresight and the wisdom of a President trusted by the people for four consecutive terms, Franklin Roosevelt led the nation through a historical global economic crisis. He epitomizes world greats whose academic careers aren’t confined to schools. Real-life experiences shaped his presidency, proving that “life’s school” can be the best educator.
*The 26th President (served from: September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909).
*Political Party: Republican Party.
*Highest-rated Criteria: Economic management, leadership ethics, achievements during tenure. Theodore Roosevelt was born on October 27, 1858, and died on January 6, 1919. Elected at the age of 42, he was the youngest president to take office. Roosevelt implemented regulations to limit the power of large corporations like Standard Oil and the nation’s railways. He also strengthened consumer protection with the Pure Food and Drug Act, which gave birth to the modern Food and Drug Administration, and established the first national parks. Roosevelt pursued an assertive foreign policy, facilitating Panama’s secession from Colombia to begin the construction of the Panama Canal.
He played a significant role in negotiating the end of the Russo-Japanese War with famous quotes like:
- “There are no accidents in the political marketplace.”
- “The most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched, they must be felt with the heart.”
Theodore Roosevelt was the son of a wealthy businessman. In 1876, he attended Harvard University and later Columbia Law School. In 1881, he left school to run for a seat in the New York State Assembly. Elected as a Republican, he was re-elected two more times, leading the Republican faction. From 1884, he spent two years living on a ranch in the Dakotas. He became a writer, authoring four volumes on the western expansion of the US (published 1889-1896).
In 1889, President Benjamin Harrison, a Republican, appointed him to the United States Civil Service Commission. In 1895, Roosevelt became the head of the New York City Police Commission. The following year, President William McKinley, a Republican, appointed him as the Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Roosevelt strongly advocated for the development of US naval power to enhance the nation’s global presence. During the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt served as a colonel, commanding the Rough Rider Regiment.
In 1898, Roosevelt was elected Governor of New York, and in 1900, he became vice president under McKinley. In September 1901, after McKinley’s assassination, Roosevelt became president. He was officially elected president in 1904. His term was notable for reforms against monopolies to limit the power of big corporations. Additionally, he established the first national park in Florida in 1903, and the first national monument in Wyoming in 1906.
In foreign affairs, Roosevelt proclaimed that the US should “speak softly and carry a big stick.” He believed that America’s security would be strengthened if other nations knew that the US would defend its interests when facing the threat of war. Adhering to the Monroe Doctrine, he prevented the establishment of foreign military bases in the Caribbean and reserved the right for the US to intervene in Latin American countries. Roosevelt also supported the construction of the Panama Canal. In 1906, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his significant role in ending the Russo-Japanese War.
Roosevelt left office in 1908. In 1912, he ran for president again against his successor, William Taft, whose policies he vehemently opposed. Roosevelt’s candidacy split the Republican vote, helping Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson win the presidency. He was nicknamed ‘Teddy,’ giving rise to the teddy bear.
5:Dwight D. Eisenhower
*The 34th President (Served from: January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961).
* Political Party: Republican Party.
* Highest Rated Criteria: Leadership Ethics.
Dwight D. Eisenhower was born on October 14, 1890, and passed away on March 28, 1969. A commanding general during World War II, he applied his strategic insights into his presidential role. He initiated a series of social welfare programs and established new agencies such as the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, founded NASA, and signed the bill creating the Interstate Highway System.
Famous quotes by Dwight D. Eisenhower include:
- “Success is a journey, not a destination.”
- “Focus on small successes, and you will achieve big ones.”
Dwight D. Eisenhower was born in Denison, Texas, and grew up in Abilene, Kansas. He was the third of seven boys in a poor family. Eisenhower graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1915 as a second lieutenant.
After World War I, he attended the Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Upon graduating, Eisenhower served as an aide to General John J. Pershing, the commander of U.S. forces in Europe during World War I. He later became the executive officer to General George V. Mosely, the Assistant Secretary of War, from 1929 until February 1933.
In 1948, General Eisenhower left his position as President of Columbia University. However, two years later, President Harry S. Truman appointed him as the Supreme Commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In this role, Eisenhower worked to establish a unified military defense against global threats.
In 1952, the Republican Party convinced him to run for president. At the national convention in July 1952, Eisenhower was nominated as the Republican presidential candidate on the first ballot. His campaign was famous for the slogan “I Like Ike.” With the support of Senator Richard M. Nixon, Eisenhower defeated Democratic opponent Adlai Stevenson to become the 34th President of the United States from 1953.
Four years later, Eisenhower once again defeated Adlai Stevenson to secure a second term. During his two terms as president, Eisenhower made significant strides in economic development and social welfare reforms.
6:Harry S. Truman
*The 33rd President (Served from: April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953).
*Political Party: Democratic Party.
* Highest-ranked criterion: Crisis leadership.
Harry S. Truman was born on May 8, 1884, and passed away on January 20, 1953. He assumed the presidency upon the death of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He led the United States through the final stages of World War II, including the decision to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. He introduced employment programs, expanded Social Security, and tackled slums.
The former U.S. president once declared:
- “It is amazing what you can accomplish if you do not care who gets the credit.”
- “A pessimist is one who makes difficulties of his opportunities and an optimist is one who makes opportunities of his difficulties.”
Harry Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri. After leaving school, he held clerical positions and also worked as a farmer. In 1917, he joined the U.S. Army and fought in World War I.
In 1923, he was appointed as a county judge in Jackson County, a largely administrative position. In his spare time, he studied at the Kansas City Law School. He actively participated in the Democratic Party’s activities in Missouri, was elected to the Senate in 1934, and was re-elected in 1940. In 1941, he led the Truman Committee to investigate waste and corruption in the U.S. defense programs. The investigation saved an estimated 15 billion dollars, elevating Truman to national prominence.
In 1944, Franklin Roosevelt selected Truman as his vice-presidential candidate. In April 1945, as World War II neared its end, Roosevelt died, making Truman the president. With little preparation, he bore significant responsibilities in the war’s closing months, including authorizing the atomic bomb drops on Japan and post-war world restructuring. Two months into his tenure, Truman witnessed the signing of the United Nations Charter.
Due to internal divisions in the Democratic Party and the Republican Party’s recapture of Congress, Truman’s domestic goals post-war were largely unachieved. On foreign policy, he faced the growing threat from the Soviet Union. He issued the Truman Doctrine, affirming that the U.S. would support any free nation threatened by Communism. Truman executed the Marshall Plan and spent 13 billion dollars on rebuilding Europe. When the Soviets blockaded West Berlin in the summer of 1948, Truman ordered a massive airlift until the Soviets backed down. Fears of communism spreading across Europe led to the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949 – a defensive alliance between Western European nations, Canada, and the U.S.
Truman believed he would lose the 1948 presidential election as his civil rights activities alienated many southern Democratic voters. However, he was re-elected, and his second term was overshadowed by foreign policy issues. In the summer of 1950, Truman ordered U.S. military intervention in the Korean War.
*The 3rd President (Served from: March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1809).
*Political Party: Democratic-Republican.
* Highest-rated criteria: Relations with Congress and vision.
Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, and passed away on July 4, 1826. He founded the U.S. Democratic-Republican Party and was also the author of the renowned Declaration of Independence and the draft of the religious freedom act. His greatest achievement during his presidency was the Louisiana Purchase from France, which doubled the size of the United States, including what is now 15 states, paving the way for the westward expansion.
This great American president famously said:
- “In matters of style, swim with the current; in matters of principle, stand like a rock.”
- “Honesty is the first chapter in the book of wisdom.”
- “Be polite to all, but intimate with few.”
Born in Shadwell, Virginia, then a wild frontier region, in an English-origin engineer family. As a child, he studied locally, then attended the College of William & Mary (1760–1762). At 23, he became a lawyer. Seven years later, he retired from the profession with a significant fortune and a profound distaste for the legal community, living the life of an independent country aristocrat. However, his social concerns did not allow him to enjoy seclusion. He was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates, and as colonial issues escalated, he played an increasingly active role in the independence movement.
Jefferson’s suggestions in the Virginia delegation to the Continental Congress, published in a pamphlet titled “A Summary View of the Rights of British America,” propelled him to the forefront of revolutionary leaders. He was sent on a special mission to England and was chosen by colleagues to draft the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Leaving Congress, he focused on crafting a constitution for Virginia. His ideas were central to that document, and other concepts were expressed in legislation over the following years. In 1779, Jefferson was elected Governor of Virginia and served until 1781. In 1783, rejoining Congress, he headed the committee to review the peace treaty with England. The following year, he was sent as a representative of the fledgling U.S. government to France and executed his duties excellently.
From 1789, as the U.S. Secretary of State in President George Washington’s cabinet, he propagated democratic ideals that laid the foundation for the U.S. Democratic Party, leading to his election as the U.S. President in 1800. After two terms, he retired and devoted his latter years to establishing the University of Virginia, which he considered one of his most significant achievements.
Jefferson died at Monticello, near Charlottesville, in the house he built himself, on the same day as John Adams, at the age of 83. His chosen epitaph reads: “Here lies Thomas Jefferson, author of the American Declaration of Independence, of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and father of the University of Virginia.”
8:John F. Kennedy
*The 35th President (Served from: January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963).
*Political Party: Democrat.
*Highest rated criteria: Persuading the public.
John F. Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917, and died on November 22, 1963. He took military actions to prevent the Cuban Missile Crisis, which could have led to a full-scale nuclear war. He established a New Frontier policy domestically, which included tax reforms, positive amendments regarding labor and education, and also promoted civil rights laws. The 35th President of the United States once said, “Ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country” during his inauguration. Despite his short tenure due to assassination and not passing any laws, he remains one of the most beloved presidents.
Enduring quotes from John F. Kennedy:
- “A man may die, nations may rise and fall, but an idea lives on.”
- “Change is the law of life. Those who look only to the past or present are certain to miss the future.”
John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born in Massachusetts to a wealthy and politically influential Irish-American family. He graduated from Harvard University in 1940. After serving in the Navy during World War II, he was encouraged by his ambitious father, Joseph, to enter politics. In 1946, he won a seat in the House of Representatives as a Democrat. By 1952, he had been elected to the U.S. Senate.
In 1960, Kennedy secured the Democratic nomination for president and defeated Richard Nixon in that year’s election. At 43, he became the youngest U.S. president and the first Roman Catholic head of state. He presented himself as a young leader for a new generation. His wife, Jacqueline Bouvier (affectionately known as Jackie), added to the charismatic image of the presidential couple, although Kennedy’s infidelities would later be revealed.
Kennedy’s years in office were marked by Cold War tensions in foreign relations, along with a commitment to domestic reforms, mainly aimed at expanding civil rights for African Americans.
Kennedy inherited a plan from predecessor Dwight D. Eisenhower to support Cuban exiles in the U.S. in invading Cuba and overthrowing Fidel Castro’s government. The April 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion ended in failure. Some historians believe this debacle made the Soviets perceive Kennedy as a weak leader, thinking they could easily place nuclear weapons in Cuba in 1962. This led to the Cuban Missile Crisis. The thirteen-day standoff brought the world to the brink of nuclear war until Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev decided to remove the missiles, restoring Kennedy’s reputation.
Domestically, Kennedy oversaw the end of segregation at the University of Mississippi in 1962 and then the University of Alabama in 1963, despite opposition from both states’ governments. However, significant civil rights legislation would not pass until the tenure of Lyndon Johnson (1963-1969), the Vice President who succeeded Kennedy after his assassination.
*The 40th President (served from: January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989).
*Political Party: Republican Party.
*Highest ranked criterion: Persuading the public.
Ronald Reagan was born on February 6, 1911, and passed away on June 5, 2004. He significantly contributed to promoting economic growth, creating jobs, reducing government spending, and strengthening national defense forces. Reagan’s economic theory is called Reaganomics. He implemented major tax reforms through two separate federal laws: the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 and the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Under Reagan, the United States experienced its longest period of peacetime economic prosperity, and he made positive steps towards peace as the Cold War neared its end.
His famous quotes include:
- “You and I know that peace, no matter how beautiful, means nothing if it’s purchased at the price of chains and slavery.”
- “Ending a war doesn’t simply mean bringing our soldiers back home. The cost of that peace would be a thousand years of darkness for generations born in Vietnam afterwards.”
- “You and I know that peace, no matter how beautiful, means nothing if it’s purchased at the price of chains and slavery.”
Coming from a poor family, Ronald Reagan rose to the highest position in the U.S, becoming one of the most beloved presidents in American history. He was born in the Midwestern town of Tampico, Illinois. His father, an alcoholic, often moved the family in search of better employment opportunities. By the age of nine, the Reagan family finally settled in Dixon, Illinois, which Ronald Reagan considered his hometown.
Here, he ran for and became the student body president in his high school. After graduating from Eureka College in 1932, Reagan entered broadcasting, initially as a radio announcer, before becoming a film actor in Hollywood.
He appeared in more than 50 films, with his renowned film titled “Knute Rockne, All American” produced in 1940. He then transitioned to television, overseeing the “General Electric Theater.”
However, acting gave way to his interest in politics. As the president of the Screen Actors Guild, he began to vocally oppose communism due to his distaste for it. Conservative Republicans started noticing the public’s positive reaction to his criticism of large government spending programs.
Supported by Republican members, Reagan ran for the governorship of California in 1966 and won. He was re-elected in 1970. Ten years later, he became the oldest president in U.S history, winning by a landslide in two consecutive elections. During his eight years in the White House, President Reagan instigated and implemented profound changes in both the U.S political landscape and the political map of Europe.
His conservative agenda and widespread public support transformed the Republican Party, leveling it with the Democrats. American voters heeded his call for a stronger military and tax cuts, even as the federal budget deficit reached record levels.
10:Lyndon B. Johnson
*The 36th President (Served from: November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969).
* Political Party: Democrat.
* Highest rated criteria: Relations with Congress.
Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on August 27, 1908, and passed away on January 22, 1973. In his 1965 State of the Union address, President Johnson presented to Congress a list of necessary legislation to achieve his Great Society agenda, aiming to help millions of Americans escape poverty. Under Johnson’s leadership, Congress enacted extensive laws in the fields of civil rights, healthcare, education, and the environment. The 1965 State of the Union became the foundation for the creation of numerous laws related to Healthcare, Voting Rights, Civil Rights, as well as the establishment of the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the White House Conference on Natural Beauty. He also directed the space program that led astronauts to the moon in 1969.
One of Lyndon Baines Johnson’s famous quotes: “I never trust anyone fully unless I have their ‘weakness’ in my hand.”
Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on a farm near Stonewall, Texas. The rough and candid young man grew up in a poor rural area and attended a teachers’ college before entering politics. In 1937, Johnson secured a seat in the House of Representatives. His government service was interrupted by World War II when he joined the Navy and earned a Silver Star for bravery in the South Pacific. After the war, he continued for a few terms in the House before being elected to the Senate in 1948.
He became the Minority Leader in the Senate in 1953. A year later, when the Democrats took control of Congress, Johnson became the Senate Majority Leader, and in 1960, John F. Kennedy chose Johnson as his running mate. In 1963, Johnson unexpectedly became President when JFK was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. LBJ took the oath of office aboard Air Force One, beside a grief-stricken Jacqueline Kennedy, on November 22, 1963.
Preparing to finish what would have been Kennedy’s term, Johnson sought to pass legislation that he believed would make America a “Great Society”. In 1964, Americans officially elected Johnson as President with the highest vote percentage in the nation’s history. He used this mandate to push for improvements he believed would better the lives of Americans.
Under Johnson, Congress passed broad legislation in the areas of civil rights, healthcare, education, and the environment. In his State of the Union address on January 4, 1965, Johnson introduced a legislative program to combat urban decay, poverty, and racial discrimination. He promoted laws related to Healthcare (Medicare/Medicaid, Head Start), Voting Rights, Civil Rights, as well as the establishment of the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the White House Conference on Natural Beauty.
He also signed the National Foundation of the Arts and Humanities Act, laying the groundwork for the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Humanities. Through the Economic Opportunity Act, Johnson waged his “War on Poverty” by implementing early childhood education improvements and fair employment policies. Johnson was also a staunch conservationist and proposed a “green legacy” through the conservation of national parks, open spaces, and coastlines, while constructing new urban parks. Additionally, he pushed for research and enacted numerous laws on air and water pollution controls.
Johnson achieved many of his goals, and despite tax cuts, many of his programs are still in effect today. However, in many ways, Johnson’s “Great Society” legacy was overshadowed by his decision to send a large number of American troops to the Vietnam War. In 1968, LBJ announced he would not seek re-election, and Republican candidate Richard Nixon succeeded him, largely due to his promise to withdraw US troops from Vietnam.
*The 28th President (Served from: March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921).
* Political Party: Democrat.
* Highest rated criterion: Vision.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born on December 28, 1856, and passed away on February 3, 1924. Known as the leader of the Progressive Movement, Wilson implemented many reforms during his presidential tenure, including new tax laws, prohibition of child labor, curbing dishonest business practices, and limiting an 8-hour workday for railroad workers. With his astute decisions, Wilson led and brought immense benefits to the US during World War I. He played a significant role in establishing the League of Nations, the predecessor of the United Nations.
His famous quote: “We must trust in the things we have taught our children.”
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born in Staunton, Virginia. His father was a pastor of the Presbyterian Church. Wilson grew up in Georgia and South Carolina amidst the American Civil War. He studied at Princeton University and later became a lawyer. He then earned a Ph.D. in history and political science from John Hopkins University.
With a successful academic career, Wilson became the president of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910. He garnered attention from his reform efforts and was invited by the New Jersey Democratic Party to run for governor in 1910. His electoral victory marked the beginning of Wilson’s political career. In 1912, he was elected President as the Democratic candidate.
Wilson introduced domestic policies, including the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, which established the framework to regulate the banking system and money supply in the US that persists to this day. Wilson tried to maintain the US’s neutral stance after the outbreak of World War I. In 1916, he was re-elected with the campaign slogan, “He kept us out of war.” However, with Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare leading to the sinking of US merchant ships, Wilson was forced to enter the war in April 1917.
In January 1918, in a speech before Congress, Wilson presented his Fourteen Points, outlining his belief in laying the foundation for peace in Europe. He attended peace talks in Versailles to promote this agenda, but the resulting treaties fell short of his expectations. Wilson returned to the US and fought for the ratification of the Versailles Treaty and support for the League of Nations, but to no avail. In 1919, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to establish the League of Nations.
*The 44th President (served from: January 20, 2009 – January 20, 2017).
*Political Party: Democrat.
* Highest-ranked attribute: Ensuring fairness for all.
Barack Obama was born on August 4, 1961, and was the first African-American president of the United States. His initiatives played a significant role in stimulating the U.S. economy after the 2008 recession and generally maintained positive international relations. He was instrumental in the enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Recovery Act, and the Tax Relief and Job Creation Act, among others.
Barack Obama is also known as an avid reader, and he has made several inspirational statements, including:
- “If you’re walking down the right path and you’re willing to keep walking, eventually you’ll make progress.”
- “There’s no excuse for not trying.”
- “Change is never easy, but it’s always possible.”
Born to a Kenyan father and a white American mother, Obama faced multi-racial biases from a young age. He lived in various places and countries during his early years. From age 6 to 10, he lived in Jakarta, Indonesia, with his mother and her Indonesian husband. He then returned to Hawaii, where he was born, to live with his grandparents, experiencing diverse cultures from Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
He graduated with a Bachelor’s degree in international relations from Columbia University in 1983. He went on to earn a law degree from Harvard Law School, where he was elected as the first African-American president of the Harvard Law Review. Aside from academics, he was also involved in many community-oriented activities.
In 2004, he was elected to the U.S. Senate as a Democrat and chaired the Health and Human Services Committee, implementing numerous community programs. He gained significant attention after a resonant declaration about a renewed vision for the United States, establishing himself as a senator on January 3, 2005.
On January 20, 2009, Barack Obama achieved a remarkable victory over a formidable opponent, Hillary Clinton, becoming the 44th president of the United States. He made history as the nation’s first black president and was successfully re-elected for a second term on March 21, 2013.
One of the standout features of Barack Obama’s leadership style is his ability to inspire confidence in people. He once mentioned that being president, making mistakes, and admitting them publicly was an honor. Obama constantly worked to dispel racial and national biases.
A unique aspect distinguishing him from previous presidents is his ability to broaden his influence. He effectively leveraged the potential of social media to communicate his message to international audiences.
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